02 SES 05 B, Crossing Boundaries and Bridging Divides in VET
Improving the quality of training activities carried out in schools requires establishing the evaluation process to be used to validate them (Guba and Lincoln, 1981; Kirkpatrick, 2004; Korthagen, Loughran and Russell, 2006; Stufflebeam and Shinkfield, 2005). In last years, a greater emphasis has been placed on vocational guidance within the educational guidance context. Vocational guidance is one of the basic context for the school counsellor at all education stages, especially in the Secondary Education. In this educational stage, the students face different decision-making processes. All of them are critical for their academic and professional future and for their personal development (Bisquerra, 2012; Cano et al., 2013).
Strategies used in order to implement the training processes in guidance context are diverse. In this research we have focused on the educational coaching supported by the information and communication technologies (ICT) following recent technological approaches (Bat, 2010; Bou, 2013; and Repetto and Malik, 2006).
Educational coaching is followed up with accompaniment tasks aiming to encourage the reflective processes among students, and enhance students themselves to be the managers of their own learning processes, including decision-making processes (Gaëtan, 2012; Malagón, 2011; Cushion, Armour and Jones, 2003). This methodological approach becomes students into main active actors of their own guidance process (Sanchez Mirón and Boronat Mundina, 2014).
This approach leads the guidance departments of the centers to rethink the methodology that they have to develop aiming to give priority to the students to be the starters of the academic and professional processes by themselves. This approach should provide students with a greater level of autonomy and improved skills to make their own decisions. It implies that counsellors must adapt their role to the specifically established rules on the current regulations about guide, support, and supervision in the guidance process (Bat, 2010; Bou, 2013; and Slater, Simmons, 2001).
Before developing the educational coaching program, a study of needs assessment was carried out at a secondary education institute in Oviedo (Asturias-Spain) to establish the intervention. This analysis was proposed as a case study for needs assessment on guidance in 4th grade of secondary education. The study show us academic and vocational guidance only takes place at specific moments, not as a continuous process, nor is it posed from multidisciplinary approaches. The students of secondary centers ask individually for advice and guidance on learning topics, specially in the last year of secondary education (Manzano, 200; Slater and Simmons, 2001).
The guidance program here presenting, called “Guide-yourself”, is focused on the significance of the self-knowledge for a responsible decision-making. The program has been developed among the 4th grade of Secondary students through collaborative and multidisciplinary strategies by the educational departments of the highschool center by using ICT applied to guidance as operative element of the training activity.
“Guide-yourself” is focused on several intervention areas: self-knowledge, awareness of context opportunities, and decision-making in order to design, at the end of the process, a personalized life project. The intervention program is carried out through coaching sessions in small groups, in order to listen and guide people. All share their own experiences and their different points of view with the group.
This proposal focuses on reaching the following objectives: Be aware of the personal, academic, and professional characteristics, in order to encourage the decision-making process; Identify the own interests, skills and motivations; Determine the future academic options according to their own interests, aptitudes and competences; Analyse the professional interests, skills, and preferences of the students; Encourage a conscient decision-making adapted to their own personal characteristics; and Develop support strategies within the families on their children’s decision-making processes.
Bat, E. G. (2010). Cognitive coaching: A critical phase in professional development to implement sheltered instruction. Teaching and Teacher education, 26, 997-1005. Bisquerra, R. (2012). Coaching: un reto para los orientadores. Revista Española de Orientación y Psicopedagogía, 19, 2, 163-170. Bou, J. F. (2013). Coaching educativo. Madrid: LID. Cano, R.; Castillo, S.; Casado, M.; Pedro, A.; Ponce, A.; et al. (2013). Técnicas para la acción tutorial. In Orientación y tutoría con el alumnado y las familias. Madrid: Walters Kluwer. Cushion C. J., Armour K.M. y Jones R.L. (2003). Coach Education and Continuing Professional Development: Experience and Learning to Coach. Quest, 55, 215–230. Gaëtan, G. (2012). Coaching escolar. Para aumentar el potencial de los alumnos con dificultades. Madrid: Narcea. Guba, E. G. and Lincoln, Y. S. (1981). Effective evaluation: improving the usefulness of evaluation results through responsive and naturalistic approaches. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2004). Evaluación de acciones formativas. Los cuatro niveles. Barcelona: EPISE-Gestión 2000. Korthagen, F. A. J.; Loughran, J. and Russell, T. (2006). Developing fundamental principles for teacher education programs and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education 22, 8, 1020-1041. Malagón, F. J. (2011). Coaching educativo y académico: un nuevo modo de enseñar y aprender. Educación y futuro, 24, 49-66. Manzano, N. (2000). Indicadores para evaluar programas de Orientación Educativa. Revista Española de Orientación y Psicopedagogía 11, 19, 1º Semestre, 51-75. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/reop.vol.11.num.19.2000.11324. Repetto, E. and Malik, B. (20069. Nuevas tecnologías aplicadas a la orientación. In Modelos de Orientación e Intervención Psicopedagógica. Madrid: Walters Kluwer. Sánchez Mirón, B. y Boronat Mundina, J. (2014). Educational Coaching: A model for the development of intra and interpersonal skills. Educación XX1, 17 (1), 219-242. doi: 10.5944/educxx188.8.131.522. Slater, C. L. and Simmons, D. L. (2001). The design and implementation of a peer coaching program. American Secondary Education 29, 3, 67-76. Stufflebeam, D. L. and Shinkfield, A. J. (2005). Evaluación sistemática. Guía teórica y práctica. Barcelona: Paidós-MEC.
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