It is well established that increasing physical activity will increase heart rate, however there have been substantial amounts of study into the variability of HR in relation to cognitive activity and stress (Pérusse-Lachance, 2012). HR is the peripheral measure most used to assay affect and cognition (Guerra, 2015). As far back as the 1970s a series of experiments by Lacey (1970) and Lacey et al (1974) demonstrated that tasks requiring increased cognitive processing are associated with HR acceleration. Numerous experiments have been conducted measuring HR and cognitive tasks, including a reported increase in HR for computer gamers performing complex gaming tasks and by subjects performing difficult mental arithmetic (Turner & Carroll, 1985).
Abundant real world occupation studies have reported HR increases due to increased physical and cognitive task load, such as for air traffic controllers (Wilson & Eggemeier, 1991), fighter pilots (Wilson, 1993), miners (Montoliu, 1995) and professional musicians (Iñesta, 2005). There have been some educational based studies including a limited number of studies in the use of HR as a measure of student cognitive engagement in university lectures. Bligh carried out a series of classroom lecture studies showing that student HR decreased over the course of a 50-minute lecture (Bligh 1972, 1998, 2000). The decline in HR was interpreted as a measure of decreasing arousal, which Bligh considered as one component of cognitive engagement. Buchheit (2010) presented the HR profile of a student presenting his PhD, and showed that stress was likely to be very high at the start of the talk (as inferred from his HR reaching 87% of maximal values), but decreased continuously as the presentation progressed. Several HR peaks occurred with the toughest questions raised by the examiners.
While there are some HR studies of public speakers there have been surprisingly very few studies carried out in relation to university lecturers during a lecture. In one of the very few, Filaire (2010) conducted a study that involved the collection of beat-by-beat HR data of lecturers before and immediately after a two hour lecture. It concluded that there was generally an increase in the lecturer’s HR as recorded immediately after the lecture compared to the pre-lecture recording. Filaire then linked the increase, in conjunction with measured stress markers in the lecturer’s saliva, as evidence of increased stress.
Remarkably there are no known studies that accurately track lecturer HR activity during the lecture. The recent proliferation of accurate, cheap and unobtrusive wearable devices with biometric sensors presents a new opportunity to perform a relatively inexpensive, natural, large scale study on the HR patterns of lecturers during lectures.
Objectives - stages
- General HR patterns during the lecture: The initial objective was to use wearable devices (Microsoft Band 2) to measure and record the HR of lecturers during a number of lectures and analyse the data to seek to identify any general patterns in HR during the length of the lecture.
- HR and teaching activity: The objective was to analyse the HR data to seek to identify and potentially link repeatable HR patterns to the teaching activities of the lecturer during the lecture, such as presenting, demonstrating or answering difficult questions.
- HR and potential influencing factors: The objective was to analyse how HR is affected by potential influencing factors, such as complexity of material being taught, the numbers of students attending, the time of day, how prepared the lecturer was, how familiar the lecturer was with the taught content, the amount of active learning within the lecture, how well the lecture slept the previous night, pre-lecture anxiety and general wellbeing.
Buchheit, M. & Mendez-Villanueva, A. Are 200 students really affecting heart rate variability and alpha-amylase activity? European Journal of Applied Physiology (2010) 109: 569. doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1373-2 Bligh DA. What’s the Use of Lectures? Jossey-Bass Publishers, SF (2000). Or Intellect Books (1998). Originally published in 1972. Boucsein, W.: Electrodermal activity. Plenum Press, New York (1992) Darnell, D., Krieg, P. (2014) Use of heart rate monitors to assess student engagement in lecture. The FASEB Journal vol. 28 no. 1 Supplement 721.25. Filaire, E., Portier, H., Massart, A. Ramat, L., Teixeira, A. (2010) Effect of lecturing to 200 students on heart rate variability and alpha-amylase activity. European Journal of Applied Physiology March 2010, Volume 108, Issue 5, pp 1035–1043 Iñesta, C., Terrados, N., García, D., & Pérez, J. A. (2008). Heart rate in professional musicians. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology (London, England), 3, 16. http://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6673-3-16 Kusserow, M., Amft, O., and Troster, G. (2012) Monitoring Stress Arousal in the Wild. IEEE Pervasive Computing (Volume: 12, Issue: 2, April-June 2013). Lacey, J., Obrist, B., Black, P, Brener, A., DiCara, L. (1974). Studies of heartrate and other bodily processes in sensorimotor behaviour. Cardiovascular psychophysiology, Aldine, Chicago Lacey, J, Lacey, B., Black, P. (1970). Some autonomic-central nervous system interrelationships Physiological correlates of emotion, Academic Press, New York Guerra, P., Sánchez-Adam A., Miccoli L., Polich J., Vila J. (2015) Heart rate and P300: Integrating peripheral and central indices of cognitive processing. Int J Psychophysiol. 2016 Feb;100:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.12.008. Epub 2015 Dec 23. Montoliu, M., González, V., and Palenciano, L. (1995) Cardiac frequency throughout a working shift in coal miners. Ergonomics. 1995;38:1250–1263. doi: 10.1080/00140139508925186 Pérusse-Lachance, E., Tremblay, A., Chaput, JP., Poirier, P., Teasdale. (2012) Mental Work Stimulates Cardiovascular Responses through a Reduction in Cardiac Parasympathetic Modulation in Men and Women. Bioenergetics 2: 107. doi:10.4172/2167-7662.1000107 Turner, J., Carroll, D. (1985) Heart rate and oxygen consumption during mental arithmetic, a video game, and graded exercise: Further evidence of metabolically-exaggerated cardiac adjustments. Psychophysiology, 22 (1985), pp. 261–267 Wilson, G. & Eggemeier, F. (1991). Physiological measures of workload in multi-task environments (pp. 329-360). In Damos,
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.