07 SES 02 A, Learning Spaces and Negotiating Difference
Over the last two decades, classrooms in many places in the world have become increasingly diverse. The movement of people within the 'borderless' European Union, the forced migration of those escaping war and/or political turmoil and education markets attracting international students mean that culturally heterogeneous classrooms have become increasingly common (Council of Europe 2011; European Commission 2013).
There is significant body of research that suggests many teachers enter the profession because they want to make a positive difference to the material and social aspects of students' lives through education (eg., Kiriacou et al. 2010). However, there are tensions between teachers' desire to teach for social justice and the educational experiences of students from some ethnic minority groups who continue to underachieve in comparison to their 'mainstream' peers. In many cases, the educational outcomes of some groups of culturally diverse student lag behind those of students from the hegemonic mainstream (OECD 2012). In general, first and second generation immigrant youth, are more likely to leave school early, less likely to access university education and consequently more likely to be unemployed or employed in low paying jobs (Portes and Rivas, 2011). While some students and their parents have been born in the country where they live, they may have been marginalised by racist and discriminatory practices that have worked to marginalise them, sometimes for generations. For example, Gypsy, Roma and Traveller groups are likely to experience education disadvantage (Wilkin et al., 2010).
There are many reasons for the disparity between the educational outcomes of some groups of students and the rhetoric of equality. One reason is that teacher education has not adequately prepared teachers to be culturally responsive practitioners. Many teachers are simply ill prepared to teach students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds (Eg. Gay, 2010; Darling-Hammond, 2012).
In this presentation we draw on data from a large scale longitudinal study conducted in Austria that aimed to limit marginalizing processes and practices and improve transitions and trajectories within an inclusive school setting for all. Here, we present interview data from one teacher in a case study school to highlight how mandatory swimming classes are a source of tension between Muslim female students and their teachers. We examine how the curriculum and associated teacher practice in this particular multicultural context reflect the values, beliefs and cultural practices of the dominant majority and can marginalise minority ethnic students. Drawing on theories of student resistance (Russell 2011; Soleranzo & Bernal 2001) we examine the interplay of student resistance and teacher authority as demonstrated during swimming lessons. We conclude that students' strategies of resistance enable them to exercise personal agency and to shape institutional structures and discourses. We suggest that by being assisted to analyse student resistance and their own responses to such student resistance, teachers can gain greater skills of reflexivity and awareness of the complexities and the effect of curriculum and pedagogies on culturally diverse students.
Bartolomé, L. (2007). Critical pedagogy and teacher education: Radicalizing prospective teachers. In P. McLaren & J. Kincheloe (Eds.), Critical pedagogy: Where are we now? (pp. 263–286). Council of Europe 2011 Compendium, Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/italy.php?aid=424 Accessed 1/09/2013 Darling-Hammond, L. (2012) Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. John Wiley & Sons, 2012. European Commission (2013) Study on educational support for newly arrived migrant children. European Commission Final Report. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/education/more-information/doc/migrants/report_en.pdf Gay, G. (2010) Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press. Gee, J. (1999). An introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. New York: Routledge. Kiriacou, C., Kunc, R., Stephens, P. And Hultgren, A. (2010) Student Teachers' Expectations of Teaching as a Career in England and Norway. Educational Review. Vol. 55(3): 255-263. OECD (2012) Untapped skills. Realising the potential of immigrant students. OECD. Portes, A. and Rivas, R. (2011) The Adaptation of Migrant Children, The Future of Children. Vol. 21(1): 219-248. Russell, L. (2011) Understanding Pupil resistance: Integrating Gender, ethnicity and Class. An Educational Ethnography. E &E Publishing: Gloucestershire. Solorzano, D.G. & Bernal, D.D. (2001). Examining Transformational Resistance Through a Critical Race and Latcrit Theory Framework: Chicana and Chicano Students in an Urban Context. Urban Education, 36, 308-342. Wilkin, A., Derrington, C., White, R. Martin, K., Foster, B., Kinder, K. and Rutt, S. (2010) Improving the outcomes for Gypsy, Roma and Traveller pupils: Final report. UK: Department for Education
Some networks have already started to plan their chairperson(s).
But at the moment chairpersons are only pencilled in, as we will still need to check for time conflicts between presentation and chairing duties. EERA office will work on this in due course and then officially let chairpersons know about their chairing duties.
Meanwhile, thank you for your patience.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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