Session Information

ERG SES G 03, ICT and Education

Paper Session



Chair:Elsa Lee


Design And Evaluation Of a Transmedia Implementation Proposal For The Digital Competence Development In An University Context.

Over the years education has evolved and, one of the most significant events that had changed the history of education was the emergence of the new technologies at the 80’s. New technologies connect people allowing an easier access to information and knowledge (Bauman, 2011; Castells, 2004).

In this context of interconnection, social networks have an important role. Those are popular platforms among the young students becoming an essential part of their life. One generation, which is born since the 80’s, has grown up in a technological and digital environment. Many authors say that this generation has a group of common characteristics, which makes them different from the others(Oblinger & Oblinger, 2005; Prensky, 2001; Tapscott, 1998). However, other authors query those statements. Saying that young people have a set of digital skills better developed. Usually those are technological skills related with social and recreational activities. Anyway, they are not able to transfer them to their own learning processes (Gallardo-Echenique, Marqués-Molías, Bullen & Strijbos, 2015; Kennedy et al., 2009).

Beyond the existence or not of that digital generation, is necessary for the students to be able to use the new communication tools that are at their service in this knowledge society. For that purpose, it’s essential for them to develop a proper digital competence (Esteve-Mon, 2015; European Commission, 2007). Vuorikari et al. (2016), define in the Project DigComp 2.0 from the European Union this digital competence in 5 areas: (a) Information and data literacy; (b) communication and collaboration; (c) digital content creation; (d) safety; and (e) problem solving.

However, as Erstad (2010) raises, to improve the digital formation of those young people, is necessary the progress of (1) a new participatory culture, with new ways to interact and collaborate; (2) new ways to access information; (3) new communication possibilities, exploring new devices, environments and channels; and (4) new ways of content production using the network and the digital tool's potential.

According to Jenkins (2003 & 2008), transmedia concept can be very useful for improving students’ digital formation. A transmedia history is built in diverse platforms, where each one gives additional and exclusive information creating a single speech. The use of transmedia in an educational context means a coordinated effort between reflexion, action and reflection. Not only by the students also by the teachers, who has the responsibility to help them using diverse languages and tools according to students’ individual needs (Mezirow, 2000; Checa-Romero, 2016). Grandío-Pérez (2015) talks about six transmedia dimensions: content, language, platform, creativity, ethic and participation.

Considering all these ideas, the present investigation pretends to create a new formative transmedia proposal for the digital competence training in a university context.

 In relation, our aims are:

A1: Analyze the concepts of digital competence, digital generation and transmedia training experiences.

A2. Design, develop and validate a proposal to implement the transmedia in the classroom.

A3. Evaluate the impact of an educational digital competence experience using transmedia with university students. 


This study has used an EDR approach, which is a variant of DBR applied to Education. According to Plomp and Nieveen (2009), an EDR study involves a systematic process for designing, developing, and evaluating an educational intervention as a solution to a complex problem that is often technology-related.

In this study, we have conducted a process that is structured in three phases: (1 Preliminary research phase; (2) development and prototyping in which prototypes are made, revised and improved; and (3) a final evaluation in which the intervention is valued with the purpose of knowing if the aims are accomplished.

This study has started in 2016, as part of a Master's Thesis and it will be developed during the next three courses. In this communication, we present the results of the preliminary research phase. In that period the problem is described, the literature is analysed and two previous experiences of similar character are reviewed. The revision was done through a questionnaire, two discussion groups and, an analysis of the content in social networks.

Instruments and participants are described below:

(a) Systematic research. Following an initial study (Esteve-Mon, Duch-Gavaldà & Gisbert-Cervera, 2014) this raises a systematic research of the concepts “digital competence” and “digital learner”, between the years 2011-2015 in the Scopus and WoS databases. The first result was 2.844 papers.

(b) Pedagogical usability questionnaire. Based on Esteve-Mon (2015) and Romero, de Amo and Borja (2011); A questionnaire was administered to assess the usability and practicality of previous experiences, as well as students' perceptions about the use of social networks. This questionnaire was administered to 52 undergraduate students.

(c) Focus group. A pair of focus group sessions with a total of 35 students were made according to the same indicators used in the pedagogical usability questionnaire.

(d) Social media content analysis. Following the approaches of Krippendorff (2004), a content analysis of the interactions and productions shared in the social networks of 2 formative experiences carried out in two Spanish universities was realized.

Expected Outcomes

The first results of this preliminary phase are described below:

Throughout the different phases of the systematic review, articles were discarded. After reviewing titles, keywords and excluding duplicates (2. 180 not elect), analyse the summaries (15 not elect), locate and download (30 not elect) the result was 19 papers. Most of these publications consider that this new generation, which is grown up in a technology context, presents formative deficiencies in digital competence. Those results are similar to the ones which were previously obtained by various researches reported above (Esteve-Mon, Duch-Gavaldà & Gisbert-Cervera, 2014).

The questionnaires and focus groups results show that the use of the social networks in formative processes was viewed in a positive (52%) or really positive (35%) way by the students. Most of them think that the use of those have contributed to develop their own digital competence, through the use of new communications tools and multimedia elements.

In addition, we can corroborate these results through the analysis of the social networks use in the formative experiences. Also, we can extract guidelines to design transmedia formative experiences.

Through these guidelines and design principles, a first prototype of a transmedia educational intervention has been developed. This will be designed, developed and validated through different iterations over the next years of doctoral research.


Checa-Romero (2016) Developing Skills in Digital Contexts: Video games and Films as Learning Tools at Primary School. Games and Culture, 11, (463-488).
Erstad, O. (2010). Educating the digital generation. Exploring media literacy for the 21st century. Universitetsforlaget, Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 5(1), 56-72.
Esteve-Mon, F. (2015). La competencia digital del futuro docente (Doctoral Thesis). Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Esteve-Mon, F.M., Duch-Gavaldà, J., & Gisbert-Cervera, M. (2014). Los aprendices digitales en la literatura científica: Diseño y aplicación de una revisión sistemática entre 2001 y 2010. Pixel-Bit, Revista De Medios Y Educación, 45, 9-21.
European Commission. (2007). Key competences for lifelong learning. European reference framework.
Gallardo-Echenique, E., Marqués-Molías, L., & Bullen, M. (2015). Students in higher education: Social and academic uses of digital technology. RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 12(1), 25–37.
Grandío-Pérez. (2015). Indicadores para la evaluación de la alfabetización transmedia en los estudios universitarios de Comunicación. Cuadernos Artesanos de Comunicación, 77.
Jenkins, H. (2003). Transmedia storytelling: Moving characters from books to films to video games can make them stronger and more compelling. MIT Technology Review.
Jenkins, H. (2008). Convergence culture: la cultura de la convergencia de los medios de comunicación. Barcelona: Paidós.
Kennedy, G., Dalgarno, B., Bennett,... Chang, R. (2009). Educating the net generation. A handbook of findings for practice and policy. Australia: Australian Learning & Teaching Council.
Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology.United States of America: Sage.
Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning as transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Company.
Oblinger, D., & Oblinger, J. L. (2005). Educating the net generation (Vol. 264). Educause Washington, DC.
Plomp, T., & Nieveen, N. (2009). An introduction to educational design research. Enschede, the Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for curriculum development (SLO).
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5),

Romero, C., de Amo, M. C., y Borja, M. (2011). Adopción de redes sociales virtuales: ampliación del modelo de aceptación tecnológica integrando confianza y riesgo percibido. Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, 14(3), 194-205.
Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up digital: The rise of the net generation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Vuorikari, R., Punie, Y., Carretero, S., & Van den Brande, L. (2016). DigComp 2.0: The digital competence framework for citizens. Update phase 1: The conceptual reference model. Luxembourg: European Commission.

This proposal is part of a master or doctoral thesis.

Author Information

Anna Sánchez-Caballé (presenting)
Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Francesc Esteve-Mon (presenting)
Universitat Jaume I, Spain
Mercè Gisbert-Cervera
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain