Author(s):Marlise Kammermann (presenting), Ursula Scharnhorst (presenting)

Conference:ECER 2017

Network:02. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)

Format:Paper

Session Information

02 SES 03 A, Equity and Inclusion in VET

Paper Session

Time:2017-08-22
17:15-18:45

Room:K5.17

Chair:Ludger Deitmer

Contribution

How Inclusive Is VET In Switzerland?


Theoretical background

Goal 4 of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development of the United Nations of September 2015 is to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality of education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” (General Assembly of the United Nations, 2015, p. 17). This not only includes completion of free, equitable and quality compulsory education for all children and youths but also access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical vocational and tertiary education as well as a rise in people with relevant skills for employment. Regarding disadvantaged people Goal 4.5 of the Agenda specifies that by 2030 all gender disparities in education have to be eliminated and equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the “vulnerable”, including people with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations, has to be established (General Assembly of the United Nations, 2015, p. 17).

Switzerland with its highly selective school system has yet to rise to this challenge. Research shows that people with (learning) disabilities and youths with social and cultural disadvantages struggle with equal access to upper secondary education (Becker, 2010; Hollenweger, Hasemann, & Hübner, 2007; Hupka-Brunner, Gaupp, Geier, Lex, & Stalder, 2011; Imdorf, 2011).

In the last decade inclusion in Swiss compulsory education has been promoted and gradually established. Compared to Germany, where inclusion in vocational education and training has exceedingly been discussed (Bylinski & Rützel, 2016; Bylinski & Vollmer, 2015; Euler & Severing, 2014), this discussion in Switzerland is yet predominantly limited to initial vocational training for young people with disability in sheltered institutions (Aeschbach, 2008; Sempert & Kammermann, 2011).

Initial VET in Switzerland offers two types of apprenticeships: three- to four-year apprenticeships with Federal VET Diploma (EFZ, Eidgenössisches Fähigkeitszeugnis) for the higher achieving youth and two-year apprenticeships with Federal VET Certificate (EBA, Eidgenössisches Berufsattest) for the lower achieving youth with a mainly practical disposition. With an emphasis on comprehension of the specific needs of learners (Swiss Confederation, 2002, Art. 17) the latter pursues inclusive goals. Also, permeability between the two-year and the three- or four-year programmes is ensured within occupational groups by ordinances that are individually set up for every occupation and standardised at national level.

 Research questions

In our paper, we will evaluate and discuss the potential for inclusion of the Swiss Basic Vocational Education and Training, more specifically of the two-year VET programme with Federal VET Certificate. We will address the following issues:

 

1)       Which is the inclusion potential in the transition process from compulsory

           to upper secondary education?

2)       How can inclusion be ensured during the two year VET programme?

3)       What are mid- to long term occupational inclusion prospects for people

           with a VET Certificate?

 


Method

Data and measures
A document analysis of the Vocational and Professional Education and Training Act) (Swiss Confederation, 2002) and the Vocational and Professional Education and Training Ordinance (Swiss Confederation, 2003) forms the first part of our approach. Additional respective Federal ordinances and guidelines are also taken into account.
The second part of our approach consists of a meta-analysis of four representative studies on the two-year VET programmes:
1) A cross-sectional evaluation of the VET-Certificate programme five
years after its introduction (Stern, Marti, von Stokar, & Ehrler, 2010)
2) A cross-sectional evaluation of the VET-Certificate programme ten
years after its introduction (econcept AG & LINK Institut, 2016)
3) The Basic VET Certificate-Career Study – a longitudinal study
following the pathways of apprentices who graduated from the first
two-year apprenticeships with Federal VET Certificate in the retail
sales and hospitality sector in 2007(Kammermann, Balzer, & Hättich,
2013)
4) An analysis of statistical data compiled by the Federal Statistical
Office on two-year apprenticeship termination and subsequent
resumption and completion of training (Schmid, Neumann, & Kriesi,
2016)
The analyses are based on an inclusive oriented perspective addressing the above described core issues.


Expected Outcomes

Results
Issue 1
In Switzerland different measures to facilitate and support the transition of academically low-achieving and disadvantaged youth from compulsory to upper secondary education are provided. Their positive impact can be confirmed. However, there is still a lack of representative statistical data on the transition of young people with special needs.

Issue 2
Regulations to support apprentices in two-year programmes are implemented and different measures are offered. The majority of the apprentices are satisfied with their training and successfully complete the final exams. However, approximately twelve percent terminate their training without re-entry.

Issue 3
A mid- to longterm inclusion in labour market and continuing education is accomplished for the majority of professionals with a VET Certificate. However, people with a special needs background are at a higher risk of longer unemployment and nonlinear careers.

Conclusions
Our findings show that an overall evaluation of the inclusion potential of VET is not yet approvable, essentially due to the lack of statistical and in depth evidence on students/learners with special needs. We emphasise that inclusion in a selective educational system remains an ongoing challenge.


References

Aeschbach, S. (2008). Praktische Ausbildung PrA nach INSOS. In K. Häfeli (Ed.), Berufliche Integration für Menschen mit Beeinträchtigungen - Luxus oder Notwendigkeit? (pp. 117–122). Luzern: SZH.

Becker, R. (2010). Soziale Ungleichheit von Bildungschancen in der Schweiz und was man dagegen tun könnte. In R. Künzli & K. Maag Merki (Eds.), Zukunft Bildung Schweiz. Bern: Akademien der Wissenschaften Schweiz.

Bylinski, U., & Rützel, J. (2016). Inklusion als Chance und Gewinn für eine differenzierte Berufsbildung. (U. Bylinski & J. Rützel, Eds.). Bonn: Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung (BIBB).

Bylinski, U., & Vollmer, K. (2015). Wege zur Inklusion in der beruflichen Bildung. Bonn: Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung (BIBB).
econcept AG, & LINK Institut. (2016). Evaluation der Arbeitsmarktsituation und Weiterbildungsperspektive von Absolventen und Absolventinnen mit eidgenössischem Berufsattest (EBA). Evaluation EBA II. Schlussbericht. Zürich.

Euler, D., & Severing, E. (2014). Inklusion in der Berufsbildung. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, 110(1), 114–132.

General Assembly of the United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. New York: United Nations.

Hollenweger, J., Hasemann, K., & Hübner, P. (2007). Behinderungen beim Übergang von der Schule ins Erwerbsleben. Expertenberichte aus drei deutschsprachigen Ländern. Zürich: Pestalozzianum.

Hupka-Brunner, S., Gaupp, N., Geier, B., Lex, T., & Stalder, B. E. (2011). Chancen bildungsbenachteiligter Jugendlicher : Bildungsverläufe in der Schweiz und in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation, 31(1), 62–78.

Imdorf, C. (2011). Wie Ausbildungsbetriebe soziale Ungleichheit reproduzieren: Der Ausschluss von Migrantenjugendlichen bei der Lehrlingsselektion. In H.-H. Krüger, U. Rabe-Kleberg, R.-T. Kramer, & J. Budde (Eds.), Bildungsungleichheit revisited. Bildung und soziale Ungleichheit vom Kindergarten bis zur Hochschule (pp. 259–274). Heidelberg: Springer.

Kammermann, M., Balzer, L., & Hättich, A. (2013). Attest macht zufriedene Berufsleute. Panorama, 27(6), 18.

Schmid, E., Neumann, J., & Kriesi, I. (2016). Lehrvertragsauflösung – Wiedereinstieg – Bildungserfolg. Ergebnisse zur zweijährigen Grundbildung mit eidgenössischem Berufsattest (EBA). Neuchâtel: BFS.

Sempert, W., & Kammermann, M. (2011). Über die Problematik der Berufsbildung im niederschwelligen Bereich. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik, 17(3), 16–21.

Stern, S., Marti, C., von Stokar, T., & Ehrler, J. (2010). Evaluation der zweijährigen beruflichen Grundbildung mit EBA. Schlussbericht. Lausanne & Zürich: INFRAS & idheap.

Swiss Confederation. (2002). Federal Act on Vocational and Professional Education and Training. Bern: Federal Chancellery.

Swiss Confederation. (2003). Ordinance on Vocational and Professional Education and Training. Bern: Federal Chancellery.


Author Information

Marlise Kammermann (presenting)
Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and TRaining SFIVET
Zollikofen
Ursula Scharnhorst (presenting)
SFIVET
Huenibach